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Sunday, June 14

  1. page CCBB edited Chau Chau BB
    Chau Chau BB
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    11:47 pm

Thursday, November 26

  1. page Chapter 9 edited ... [g3-2698] What is Knowledge? ... to mean: Knowing Knowing that (facts and information…
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    [g3-2698]
    What is Knowledge?
    ...
    to mean:
    Knowing
    Knowing that (facts and information)
    Knowing
    , Knowing how (the
    Knowledge is also defined as (i) expertise, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject, (ii) what is known in a particular field or in total; facts and information or (iii) awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation. Philosophical debates in general start with Plato's formulation of knowledge as "justified true belief". There is however no single agreed definition of knowledge presently, nor any prospect of one, and there remain numerous competing theories.
    Sometimes, we use the word knowledge to mean that we have some information. In philosophy, knowing that something is the case implies that what is known is true.
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    11:35 pm
  2. page Chapter 9 edited ... Internet privacy consists of privacy over the media of the Internet, it can control who can ac…
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    Internet privacy consists of privacy over the media of the Internet, it can control who can access that information, control what information one reveals about oneself over the Internet.
    There is some of the risks on the internet privacy may concerned:
    ...
    use for user-trackinguser-tracking. Anti-spyware programs often report Web advertisers HTTP cookie, the small text files that track browsing activity, as spyware. While they are not always inherently malicious, many users object to third parties using space on their personal computers for their business purposes, and many anti-spyware programs offer to remove them.
    (g3-5875)

    Photographs or video on the Internet: most of the mobile phone support cameras to take photo or video and post it to the internet
    ...
    without their knowledgeknowledge. The presence of spyware is typically hidden from the user. Typically, spyware is secretly installed on the user's personal computer. Sometimes, however, spywares such as keyloggers are installed by the owner of a shared, corporate, or public computer on purpose in order to secretly monitor other users.
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    Phishing: masquerading
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    credit card detailsdetails. The act of sending an e-mail to a user falsely claiming to be an established legitimate enterprise in an attempt to scam the user into surrendering private information that will be used for identity theft. The e-mail directs the user to visit a Web site where they are asked to update personal information, such as passwords and credit card, social security, and bank account numbers, that the legitimate organization already has. The Web site, however, is bogus and set up only to steal the user’s information.
    (g3-5875)
    Data logging: Many programs and operating systems are set up to perform data logging of usage. This may include recording times when the computer is in use, or which web sites are visited. If a third party has sufficient access to the computer, legitimately or not, the user's privacy may be compromised. This could be avoided by disabling logging, or by clearing logs regularly.
    (g3-5875)
    ISPs: Consumers obtain Internet access through an Internet Service Provider (ISP). All Internet data to and from the consumer must pass through the consumer's ISP. Given this, any ISP has the capability to observe everything about the consumer's (unencrypted) Internet.
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    (g3-4166)
    1. Privacy is the “zone of inaccessibility” which defines the extent to which you can control who has access. This means that you have privacy in this zone, and entering this zone without your permission violates your privacy.
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    11:33 pm
  3. page Chapter 9 edited ... Knowledge is also defined as (i) expertise, and skills acquired by a person through experience…
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    Knowledge is also defined as (i) expertise, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject, (ii) what is known in a particular field or in total; facts and information or (iii) awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation. Philosophical debates in general start with Plato's formulation of knowledge as "justified true belief". There is however no single agreed definition of knowledge presently, nor any prospect of one, and there remain numerous competing theories.
    Sometimes, we use the word knowledge to mean that we have some information. In philosophy, knowing that something is the case implies that what is known is true.
    'Knowledge: the sum of what is known' - Oxford English Dictionary
    [g3-5875]
    What is Knowledge Management (KM)?
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    5:51 am
  4. page Chapter 9 edited Hi Group 3, add or modify your content in this page by Sunday Nov 22 at 2359. Chapter 9 Suppo…

    Hi Group 3, add or modify your content in this page by Sunday Nov 22 at 2359.
    Chapter 9 Supporting Knowledge Work
    ...
    Explicit knowledge is the things that an individual knows and can easily write down. This type of knowledge often comes through learning by observation, reading or group discussion. Often this type of knowledge can be made into print or electronic guides or stored on an intranet or database. For example the exact sequence of steps that needs to be taken to check the receipt of journals within your information service.
    [g3-5875]
    ...
    tacit knowledge
    To

    To
    explicit knowledge
    From

    From
    tacit knowledge
    Socialization
    Externalization
    ...
    explicit knowledge
    Internalization
    Combination
    ...
    (3) they could counter offer. Yet, not one of the underwriters articulated these as boundaries on their work at the outset of the analysis. Once these outcomes were identified, it was a comparatively simple matter to identify the criteria used to determine the response to a given application. In so doing, implicit knowledge became explicit knowledgele.
    [g3-1000]
    Examples of transforming tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge:
    A new librarian makes notes about creating a current awareness bulletin that is being verbally explained to them.
    An individual new to journal article writing may write a second article about the process of beginning a first publication project to help other individuals in similar situations in the future.
    [g3-5875]

    Human, Structural, and Customer Capital
    Definition of human capital
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    5:50 am
  5. page Chapter 9 edited ... Reference: http://knowman.ifw.uni-bremen.de/ [g3-0386] ... of Knowledge The two type…
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    Reference: http://knowman.ifw.uni-bremen.de/
    [g3-0386]
    ...
    of Knowledge
    The two types of knowledge are:
    Tacit
    Explicit
    [g3-5875]

    Explicit knowledge
    ...
    in databases.
    Tacit knowledge is implicit and is not necessarily or easily articulated in formal documents. The owner of this knowledge is aware that they have it and it is gained over a period of time from experiences and includes insights, emotions and the concept of 'how things are done around here'. People build up tacit knowledge during time spent in a role or within an organisation. New employees begin to build up tacit knowledge when the join a new organisation. It is often hard to share with others.
    [g3-5875]
    c
    tacit
    Tacit knowledge
    ...
    tacit knowledge:
    o

    o
    Technical Dimension
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    this dimension.
    o

    o
    Cognitive Dimension:
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    around us.
    conversionNonaka

    conversionNonaka
    & Takeuchi
    ...
    of knowledge:
    To

    Explicit knowledge is the things that an individual knows and can easily write down. This type of knowledge often comes through learning by observation, reading or group discussion. Often this type of knowledge can be made into print or electronic guides or stored on an intranet or database. For example the exact sequence of steps that needs to be taken to check the receipt of journals within your information service.
    [g3-5875]
    To
    tacit knowledge
    To

    To
    explicit knowledge
    From

    From
    tacit knowledge
    Socialization
    Externalization
    From

    Socialization
    Externalization
    From
    explicit knowledge
    Internalization
    Combination
    o

    Internalization
    Combination
    o
    Socialization: from
    ...
    receiver. internal
    o

    o
    Internalization: from
    ...
    stories. external
    o

    o
    Externalization: from
    ...
    language. combination
    Combination,: from explicit to explicit -- A process of systemizing concepts into a knowledge system. Individuals exchange and combine knowledge through media, such as documents, meetings, and conversations. Information is reconfigured by such means as sorting, combining, and categorizing. Formal education and many training programs work this way.
    Reference Link: http://www.sos.net/~donclark/knowledge/knowledge.html
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    5:44 am
  6. page Chapter 9 edited ... The idea of a KM is to enable employees to have ready access to the organization's documented …
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    The idea of a KM is to enable employees to have ready access to the organization's documented base of facts, sources of information, and solutions. For example a typical claim justifying the creation of a KM might run something like this: an engineer could know the metallurgical composition of an alloy that reduces sound in gear systems. Sharing this information organization wide can lead to more effective engine design and it could also lead to ideas for new or improved equipment.
    [g3-2698]
    What is Knowledge?
    Before we getting to know what is "Knowledge Management", it is better to know what is "Knowledge" first. In normal conversation we use knowledge to mean:
    Knowing that (facts and information)
    Knowing how (the ability to do something)
    Knowledge is also defined as (i) expertise, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject, (ii) what is known in a particular field or in total; facts and information or (iii) awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation. Philosophical debates in general start with Plato's formulation of knowledge as "justified true belief". There is however no single agreed definition of knowledge presently, nor any prospect of one, and there remain numerous competing theories.
    Sometimes, we use the word knowledge to mean that we have some information. In philosophy, knowing that something is the case implies that what is known is true.
    [g3-5875]

    What is Knowledge Management (KM)?
    Knowledge Management (KM) is a streamlined approach at improving intellectual capital (i.e. data, information and knowledge) collecting, maintaining, sharing and disseminating across the entire organization. KM focus on busienss objectives of organization, such as continuous improvement of performance, sharing of lessons learned, innovation, as so an organization can generate a competitive advantage in the market.
    ...
    Reference Link: http://www.sos.net/~donclark/knowledge/knowledge.html
    [g3-3241]
    Explicit Knowledge
    Explicit

    Explicit
    knowledge, is
    ...
    work objectives.
    Tacit

    Tacit
    Knowledge
    Tacit

    Tacit
    knowledge is
    ...
    into practice.
    Implicit

    Implicit
    Knowledge
    Knowledge that can be articulated but hasn't is implicit knowledge. Its existence is implied by or inferred from observable behavior or performance. This is the kind of knowledge that can often be teased out of a competent performer by a task analyst, knowledge engineer or other person skilled in identifying the kind of knowledge that can be articulated but hasn’t. In analyzing the task in which underwriters at an insurance company processed applications, for instance, it quickly became clear that the range of outcomes for the underwriters' work took three basic forms:
    (1) they could approve the policy application
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    5:39 am

Monday, November 23

  1. page Chapter 9 edited ... o Internalization: from explicit to tacit -- Embodying explicit knowledge into tacit knowledge…
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    o Internalization: from explicit to tacit -- Embodying explicit knowledge into tacit knowledge. Closely related to "learning by doing." Normally, knowledge is verbalized or diagrammed into documents or oral stories. external
    o Externalization: from tacit to explicit -- The quintessential process of articulating tacit knowledge into explicit concepts through metaphors, analogies, concepts, hypothesis, or models. Note that when we conceptualize an image, we express its essence mostly in language. combination
    ...
    this way.
    Reference Link: http://www.sos.net/~donclark/knowledge/knowledge.html
    [g3-3241]
    Explicit Knowledge
    Explicit knowledge, is knowledge that has been articulated and, more often than not, captured in the form of text, tables, diagrams, product specifications and so on. In a well-known and frequently cited 1991 Harvard Business Review article titled "The Knowledge Creating Company," Ikujiro Nonaka refers to explicit knowledge as "formal and systematic" and offers product specifications, scientific formulas and computer programs as examples.For example, explicit knowledge with which we are all familiar is the formula for finding the area of a rectangle (i.e., length times width). And, explicit knowledge include documented best practices, the formalized standards by which an insurance claim is adjudicated and the official expectations for performance set forth in written work objectives.
    Tacit Knowledge
    Tacit knowledge is knowledge that cannot be articulated. As Michael Polanyi (1997), the chemist-turned-philosopher who coined the term put it, "We know more than we can tell." Polanyi used the example of being able to recognize a person's face but being only vaguely able to describe how that is done. This is an instance of pattern recognition. What we recognize is the whole or the gestalt and decomposing it into its constituent elements so as to be able to articulate them fails to capture its essence. Reading the reaction on a customer's face or entering text at a high rate of speed using a word processor offer other instances of situations in which we are able to perform well but unable to articulate exactly what we know or how we put it into practice.
    Implicit Knowledge
    Knowledge that can be articulated but hasn't is implicit knowledge. Its existence is implied by or inferred from observable behavior or performance. This is the kind of knowledge that can often be teased out of a competent performer by a task analyst, knowledge engineer or other person skilled in identifying the kind of knowledge that can be articulated but hasn’t. In analyzing the task in which underwriters at an insurance company processed applications, for instance, it quickly became clear that the range of outcomes for the underwriters' work took three basic forms:
    (1) they could approve the policy application
    (2) they could deny it or
    (3) they could counter offer. Yet, not one of the underwriters articulated these as boundaries on their work at the outset of the analysis. Once these outcomes were identified, it was a comparatively simple matter to identify the criteria used to determine the response to a given application. In so doing, implicit knowledge became explicit knowledgele.
    [g3-1000]

    Human, Structural, and Customer Capital
    Definition of human capital
    ...
    [g3-2698]
    {km_culture.jpg} Organizational Culture on Knowledge Management
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    D Leidner
    [g3-1580]
    Cultural barriesrs in knowledge mangagement (KM)
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    5:45 am

Sunday, November 22

  1. page Chapter 9 edited ... [g3-0386] Knowledge Management is the set of processes that seeks to change the organization'…
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    [g3-0386]
    Knowledge Management is the set of processes that seeks to change the organization's present pattern of knowledge processing to enhance both it and itsoutcomes. A discrete Knowledge Management activity is one that has the same goal as above or that is meant to contribute to that set of processes. Thediscipline of Knowledge Management is the study of such processes and their impact on knowledge and operational processing and outcomes. The foregoing implies that KM doesn't directly manage, create or integrate most knowledge outcomes in organizations, but only impacts knowledge processes (performed by operational process agents), which, in turn, impact knowledge outcomes.
    [g3-9720]
    Why we need Knowledge Management (KM)?
    It can be divided into external business factors and internal organizational factors:
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    Subject of reasonable efforts to maintain its secret
    g3-0038
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    as such. Reference:
    Reference:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copyright
    Patent
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    and expensive. Reference:
    Reference:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patent
    Trade
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    not free. Reference:
    Reference:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trade_secret
    Trademarks
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    as owners. Reference:
    Reference:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trademark
    [g3-0386]
    {ipr.gif}
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    7:50 am
  2. page Chapter 9 edited ... Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knowledge_management [g3-0386] Knowledge Management…
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    Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knowledge_management
    [g3-0386]
    Knowledge Management is the set of processes that seeks to change the organization's present pattern of knowledge processing to enhance both it and itsoutcomes. A discrete Knowledge Management activity is one that has the same goal as above or that is meant to contribute to that set of processes. Thediscipline of Knowledge Management is the study of such processes and their impact on knowledge and operational processing and outcomes. The foregoing implies that KM doesn't directly manage, create or integrate most knowledge outcomes in organizations, but only impacts knowledge processes (performed by operational process agents), which, in turn, impact knowledge outcomes.
    [g3-9720]

    Why we need Knowledge Management (KM)?
    It can be divided into external business factors and internal organizational factors:
    ...
    Knowledge Management is the process through which organizations generate value from their intellectual and knowledge-based assets. Most often, generating value from such assets involves sharing them among employees, departments and even with other companies in an effort to devise best practices. It's important to note that the definition says nothing about technology; while KM is often facilitated by IT, technology by itself is not KM.
    [g3-2220]
    What is Information?
    Information is a non-random structure within a system, indicating future interactive potentialities, either originating along with it, or acquired or developed by it in the course of its interacting with and responding to its environment. This definition does not require correspondence between information and the environment. Nor does it assert that information is encoded in some simple cause-and-effect fashion, but leaves room for emergent information in the context of interaction with the environment.
    What is Knowledge?
    Knowledge is a tested, evaluated and surviving structure of information (e.g. DNA instructions, synaptic structures, beliefs, or claims) that may help the living system that developed it to adapt. This is our general viewpoint. It is consistent with our definition of information.
    [g3-9720] ----

    Part I – Supporting Knowledge Work
    SECI Model
    (view changes)
    7:25 am

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